Born 7 January 1894 at Zdunska Wola, Poland as Raymond Kolbe. He was the second of three sons born to a poor but
pious Catholic family in Russian occupied Poland. His parents, both Franciscan lay tertiaries, worked at home as weavers.
His father, Julius, later ran a religious book store, then enlisted in Pilsudski's army, fought for Polish independence from
Russia, and was hanged by the Russians as a traitor in 1914. His mother, Marianne Dabrowska, later became a Benedictine nun.
His brother Alphonse became a priest.
He entered the Franciscan junior seminary in Lwow, Poland in 1907 where he excelled in mathematics and physics. For a while
he wanted to abandon the priesthood for the military, but eventually relented to the call to religious life, and on 4 September
1910 he became a novice in the Conventual Franciscan Order at age 16. He took the name Maximilian, made his first vows on
5 September 1911, his final vows on 1 November 1914.
Studied philosophy at the Jesuit Gregorian College in Rome from 1912 to 1915, and theology at the Franciscan Collegio Serafico
in Rome from 1915 to 1919. On 16 October 1917, while still in seminary, he and six friends founded the Immaculata Movement
(Militia Immaculatae, Crusade of Mary Immaculate) devoted to the conversion of sinners, opposition to freemasonry (which was
extremely anti-Catholic at the time), spread of the Miraculous Medal (which they wore as their habit), and devotion to Our
Lady and the path to Christ. Stricken with tuberculosis which nearly killed him, and left him in frail in health the rest
of his life. Ordained on 28 April 1918 in Rome at age 24. Received his Doctor of Theology on 22 July 1922; his insights into
Marian theology echo today through their influence on Vatican II.
Maximilian returned to Poland on 29 July 1919 to teach history in the Crakow seminary. He had to take a medical leave from
10 August 1920 to 28 April 1921 to be treated for tuberculosis at the hospital at Zakpane in the Tatra Mountains. In January
1922 he began publication of the magazine Knight of the Immaculate to fight religious apathy; by 1927 the magazine had a press
run of 70,000 issues. He was forced to take another medical leave from 18 September 1926 to 13 April 1927, but the work continued.
The friaries from which he had worked were not large enough for his work, and in 1927 Polish Prince Jan Drucko-Lubecki gave
him land at Teresin near Warsaw. There he founded a new monastery of Niepokalanow, the City of the Immaculate which was consecrated
on 8 December 1927. At its peak the Knight of the Immaculate had a press run of 750,000 copies a month. A junior seminary
was started on the grounds in 1929. In 1935 the house began printing a daily Catholic newspaper, The Little Daily with a press
run of 137,000 on work days, 225,000 on Sundays and holy days.
Not content with his work in Poland, Maximilian and four brothers left for Japan in 1930. Within a month of their arrival,
penniless and knowing no Japanese, Maximilian was printing a Japanese version of the Knight; the magazine, Seibo no Kishi
grew to a circulation of 65,000 by 1936. In 1931 he founded a monastery in Nagasaki, Japan comparable to Niepokalanow. It
survived the war, including the nuclear bombing, and serves today as a center of Franciscan work in Japan.
In mid-1932 he left Japan for Malabar, India where he founded a third Niepokalanow house. However, due to a lack of manpower,
it did not survive.
Poor health forced him to curtail his missionary work and return to Poland in 1936. On 8 December 1938 the monastery started
its own radio station. By 1939 the monastery housed a religious community of nearly 800 men, the largest in the world in its
day, and was completely self-sufficient including medical facilities and a fire brigade staffed by the religious brothers.
Arrested with several of his brothers on 19 September 1939 following the Nazi invasion of Poland. Others at the monastery
were briefly exiled, but the prisoners were released on 8 December 1939, and the men returned to their work. Back at Niepokalanow
he continued his priestly ministry, The brothers housed 3,000 Polish refugees, two-thirds of whom were Jewish, and continued
their publication work, including materials considered anti-Nazi. For this work the presses were shut down, the congregation
suppressed, the brothers dispersed, and Maximilian was imprisoned in Pawiak prison, Warsaw, Poland on 17 February 1941.
On 28 May 1941 he was transferred to Auschwitz and branded as prisoner 16670. He was assigned to a special work group staffed
by priests and supervised by especially vicious and abusive guards. His calm dedication to the faith brought him the worst
jobs available, and more beatings than anyone else. At one point he was beaten, lashed, and left for dead. The prisoners managed
to smuggle him into the camp hospital where he spent his recovery time hearing confessions. When he returned to the camp,
Maximilian ministered to other prisoners, including conducting Mass and delivering communion using smuggled bread and wine.
In July 1941 there was an escape from the camp. Camp protocol, designed to make the prisoners guard each other, required
that ten men be slaughtered in retribution for each escaped prisoner. Francis Gajowniczek, a married man with young children
was chosen to die for the escape. Maximilian volunteered to take his place, and died as he had always wished - in service.
He died 14 August 1941 by lethal carbonic acid injection after three weeks of starvation and dehydration at Auschwitz; body
burned in the ovens and ashes scattered.